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Introduction to Energy, Growth Rate & Energy Economics




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9/1/2015




9/3/2015
Course Introduction
  Course Syllabus

  Part 1. Introduction to Energy
    Example 1-1.ees
    Example 1-2.ees
    Example 1-3.ees

  Part 2. Energy Perspectives


8/31/2015








Sources of
information
on Energy

(accessed
9/1/2014)

DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA)
EIA Annual Energy Review (AER)
EIA Forecasts & Analysis
EIA Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources
International Energy Agency (IEA)
DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
NETL Energy Analysis
EIA Petroleum Navigator
LLNL Energy Flow Charts
BP Statistical Review of World Energy - 2014 [uses cookies]
National Academies of Science Energy Site
U.S. Hydropower, Idaho National Lab
US Geological Survey
American Physical Society, Energy Units

9/1/2014
3 9/8/2015 Part 3. Exponential Growth & Peak Oil
Growth Rate & Hubbert's Peak
Arithmetic, Population and Energy - a talk by Al Bartlett

8/31/2015
Documents on
Peak Oil

(accessed
9/1/2014)

W. K. Hubbert 1956 API paper
A. A. Bartlett 2000 Mathematical Geology paper
A. J. Cavallow 2004 Natural Resources Research paper

Congressman Ehler's (MI) Statement on "Energy"
    given before the House of Representatives, May 11, 2005

Congressman Bartlett's (Md) Statement: "The Peaking of World Oil"
    given before the House of Representatives, February 8, 2006

GAO Report on Crude Oil, GAO link
House Resolution on Peak Oil
    resolution submitted by Congressman Bartlett (Md) on January 6, 2009;
    referred to the Committee on Energy and Commerce

1/21/2010
Part 4. Energy Economics
  Energy Economics
    Example 4-1.ees
    Example 4-3.ees
    Example 4-4.ees
    Example 4-5.ees
    Example 4-7.ees

9/12/2013

Heat Engines & Thermodynamics

4 9/10/2015 Part 5. Fluid Power and Heat Engines
  The Rise of Heat Engines

Additional Resources:
  Animated Engines
9/11/2015

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9/15/2015
9/17/2015
9/22/2015
9/24/2015
Part 6. Thermodynamic Processes and Properties
  Review of Engineering Thermodynamics - Part A
  Review of Engineering Thermodynamics - Part B

  Work, steam engine indicators, caloric theory and language
  Troublesome Concepts in Thermodynamics
    - fluid properties & equations of state
    - internal energy and enthalpy
    - specific heats
    - boundary work vs flow potential
    - entropy, reversible processes
    - Gibbs relationships
    - work from gas expansion
    - polytropic processes,
    - work from vapor expansion
    - thermodynamic cycles, Second Law

Additional Resources:
  Manual of Steam Engine Indicator, C. Peabody, 1914

  DOE Fundamentals Handbook
    DOE-HDBK-1012/1-92, Thermodynamics
    DOE-HDBK-1012/2-92, Heat Transfer
    DOE-HDBK-1012/3-92, Fluid Flow
9/22/2015
9 9/29/2015 Guest Lecturer: John McConnachie; Black and Veatch
  Presentation
10/1/2015

Thermal-to-Mechanical Energy Conversion
- Rankine Cycle -






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10/1/2015

10/6/2015

10/7/2015









10/15/2015
Part 7. Rankine Cycle
  Rankine Cycle Lecture Notes
  Fundamentals of Steam Power, Weston
  Chapter 2. Rankine Cycle, El-Wakil; posted to Canvas

ideal & simple Rankine cycle, enthalpies and 1st law,
pump work, isentropic efficiencies,
external irreversibilities, pinchpoint temperature difference,
superheat, reheat,
Regeneration: - open feedwater heater (OFH)
    - steam bleed and latent heat
    - feedwater, subcooled liquid
    - mass and energy balance in OFH
Regeneration - closed feedwater heater (CFH)
    - drained (throttled) backwards
    - terminal temperature difference
    - drain coolers, desuperheaters
    - pumped forward
supercritical Rankine cycle,
co-generation, co-generation cycle efficiency

review of feedwater heating

Examples and Cycle Diagrams:
  Example of Simple Rankine Cycle:
   simple Rankine cycle example - EES

  Example with Open and Closed Feedwater Heaters:
   example cycle & T-s diagrams - blank
   example cycle & T-s diagrams
   OFH Rankine cycle example - EES
10/7/2015

Thermal-to-Mechanical Energy Conversion
- Brayton Cycle -





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10/20/2015

10/22/2015



10/27/2015
Part 8. Brayton Cycle
  Brayton Cycle Lecture Notes
  Chapter 5. Gas Turbines and Jet Engines, Weston

ideal & simple Brayton cycles, thermal efficiency & pressure ratio
back work ratio, net work and pressure ratio
regenerator, regenerator effectiveness, thermal efficiency
multistage compression with intercooling
multistage expansion with reheat

combined cycle

Examples:
  example 1 - hand calculations
  example 1 - EES

10/15/2015

Chemical-to-Thermal Energy Conversion
- Fuels & Combustion -





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10/29/2015

11/3/2015

11/5/2015
Part 9. Chemical Energy
  Chapter 3. Fuels and Combustion, Weston
  Chemical Energy Conversion Lecture Notes

fuels, chemical energy balance
hydrocarbon chemistry
stoichiometric combustion
composition of air, stoichiometric air, air-fuel ratio
sensible heat, latent heat
enthalpies of formation, of reaction, of combustion, heating values
adiabatic flame temperature

petroleum, petroleum distillation

  example problems

11/10/2015

Nuclear-to-Thermal Energy Conversion
- Fission -















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11/10/2015
11/12/2015
11/17/2015


11/19/2015





12/1/2015
Part 10. Nuclear Energy (lecture notes)
  Part 10a. Nuclear Energy
  Part 10b. Nuclear Energy
  Part 10c. Nuclear Energy

  Chapters on Nuclear Energy (Primary Reading)
  Chapter 10. Nuclear Power Plants, Weston
   additional book chapters posted in Canvas

  Radioisotope Data (Appendix K & L)
  Chart of Nuclides, National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Lab
  LBNL/Lund University Isotopes Project, includes periodic table interface
  Live Chart of Nuclides, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Nuclear Decay Reactions
nuclear particles and atomic mass, mass defect & binding energy,
radioactive decay, half-life, activity, decay energy, units,
kinetic energy balance, sources of radioisotopes, RTG power

Nuclear Fission Reactions
fission, neutron energies and fission probability
neutron scattering & moderators, thermalized neutrons
neutron reaction, reaction rate, and neutron flux
power density from neutron fission reaction

Nuclear Reactor Designs
pressurized water reactors (PWR), boiling water reactors (BWR, RMBK)
nuclear reactor accidents, Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl, Fukishima

Additional Resources:

  DOE Handbook: Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory
    Volume 1
    Volume 2

  The origin of neutrino mass, Physics World, May 2002
  SNAP 7 Progress Report No. 6, Strontium-90 Fueled RTG Development

  charts and figures
  USNRC Radiation
  USNRC Fission
  USNRC Pressurized Water Reactor
  USNRC Boiling Water Reactor
  USNRC Three-Mile Island 'Backgrounder'
  Three-Mile Island, A Report to the Commissioners and the Public

interesting web links:
  HyperPhysics - Nuclear Physics by Georgia State University
  HyperPhysics - Nuclear Energy by Georgia State University
  Global Nuclear Power Reactors by World Nuclear Association
12/1/2015

Electromagnetic-to-Thermal Energy Conversion
- Solar -

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12/3/2015







12/8/2015
Part 11a. Solar Energy - Insolation
electromagnetic energy, solar spectrum, beam vs diffuse energy,
solar energy flux and transmittance, air mass ratio,
absorbtance, reflectance, emittance, calculating solar insolation

Part 11b. Solar Energy - Collectors
solar collector energy balance, solar concentrator ratios, parabolic, dish, central receiver

Part 11c. Solar Energy - Storage
sensible heat, latent heat, thermochemical decomposition, photochemical decomposition

Additional Resources:
  NREL Solar Radiation Data Manual, 1961-1990  -   Houghton, MI data sheet
  NREL Solar Radiation Data Manual, 1961-1990, web link, last checked 11/10/2010
  NREL Solar Radiation Data Base 1991-2005 Update
  Solar Irradiation on Vertical Surfaces - 1986, Solar Energy Research Institute
  Simple Sky Model, Spectral Solar Irradiance - 1987, Solar Energy Research Institute
  Solar Irradiation on Horizontal Surfaces, Safaripour and Mehrabian, 2011.


interesting web links:
  NOAA Old Solar Noon Calculator
  NOAA New Solar Noon Calculator
  NREL Solar Resource Information
  NREL Solar Maps
  Worldwide Concentrating Solar Power Projects compiled by NREL
     web link courtesy of E. Sharbrough
12/1/2015

Electromagnetic-to-Electrical Energy Conversion
- Solar -

26 12/8/2015 Part 12. Solar Energy - Photovoltaics
photon energy, photon flux, photon energy flux, photovoltaic effect, photovoltaic cell
power output, maximum power and efficiency of photovoltaic energy conversion

interesting web links:
  PVCDROM, web-based photovoltaic animated book with live calculations
12/1/2015

Chemical-to-Electrical Energy Conversion
- Fuel Cells -

Mechanical-to-Mechanical Energy Conversion
- Wind & Hydrokinetic -

Part 14. Wind Energy

types of turbines, Betz limit, axial induction factor, maximum power coefficient
Cp and tip speed ratio, energy production, capacity factor, forces on airfoils

video lecture link posted in Canvas
12/1/2015

Energy Storage